Cloaking generally means to present different version of web page contents from of search engines to search robots and human visitors based on their browser's user agent or IP address. It's a deceptive method used to cheat search engines in order to rank well for desired keywords.
Cloaking defines in above quotes. I just want to add types of cloaking here:IP address Cloaking
- a method of presenting different contents based on determining IP addresses. e.g. Search engines with certain IP addresses will be shown a one version of a web page and all other IP addresses will be shown another version.User-Agent Cloaking
- a method of delivering different versions of a website based on User-Agent. e.g. Search engines and/or users using different versions of web browsers are served with different contents of a web page.HTTP_REFERER Header Cloaking
- if a user is coming from a certain website (e.g. clicking a link from search results or a website) they will be presented a different version of a website based on the HTTP_REFERER header value.HTTP Accept-Language Header Cloaking
Finally, cloaking can be a dangerous thing so be careful while using it.