AMS Euler

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AMS Euler is an upright cursive typeface, commissioned by the American Mathematical Society (AMS) and designed and created by Hermann Zapf with the assistance of Donald Knuth. It tries to emulate a mathematician's style of handwriting mathematical entities on a blackboard, which is upright rather than italic[1][2]. It blends very well with other typefaces made by Hermann Zapf, such as Palatino, Aldus and Melior, but very badly with the default TeX font Computer Modern. All the alphabets were executed with the computer-assisted design system Metafont developed by Knuth. Work on the design took place 1980-81 with copyright by American Mathematical Society in 1983.

The AMS Euler typeface is named after Leonhard Euler.

First implemented in METAFONT, AMS Euler was first used in the book Concrete Mathematics, co-authored by Knuth, which was dedicated to Euler[3]. This volume also saw the debut of Knuth's Concrete Roman font, designed to complement AMS Euler. The typeface is now also available in other formats, including PostScript Type 1 and TrueType.

File:AMS Euler sample math.svg
Equations written in AMS Euler.

The family consist of seven alphabets: Text, Greek, Fraktur, Text Bold, Greek Bold, Script Bold and Fraktur Bold.

Reshaping Euler

In 2009, AMS released version 3.0 of AMS fonts, in which Hermann Zapf reshaped many of the Euler glyphs, with implementation and assistance from Hans Hagen, Taco Hoekwater, and Volker RW Schaa.

The updated version 3.0 was presented to Donald Knuth on his birthday, January 10, 2008.

These updates were designed to work with the metrics for version 2.2, so no changes to the .tfm files were needed. Since the updates were made directly to the Type 1 files, the (incompatible) MetaFont sources have been removed from the distribution[4][5].

The reshaped version is released under OFL license[4].


  1. Donald E. Knuth and Hermann Zapf. AMS Euler — A New Typeface for Mathematics. Scholarly Publishing 20 (1989), 131–157. Reprinted as chapter 17 of the book Digital Typography.
  2. Hermann Zapf and His Design Philosophy — Selected Articles and Lectures on Calligraphy and Contemporary Developments in Type Design, with Illustrations and Bibliographical Notes, and a Complete List of His Typefaces, Society of Typographic Arts Chicago (1987).
  3. Donald E. Knuth. Typesetting Concrete Mathematics, TUGboat 10 (1989), 31–36, 342. Reprinted as chapter 18 of the book Digital Typography.
  4. 4.0 4.1 AMSFonts README file.
  5. Reshaping Euler — A collaboration with Hermann Zapf. TUGboat, Volume 29 (2008), No. 2.

External links

de:AMS Euler it:AMS Euler sv:Euler (teckensnitt)

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