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CiteSeer was a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers. It is being replaced by CiteSeerx. It was created by researchers Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker and Lee Giles while they were at the NEC Research Institute (now NEC Labs), Princeton, New Jersey, USA. CiteSeer's goal was to actively crawl and harvest academic and scientific documents on the web and use autonomous citation indexing to permit querying by citation or by document, ranking them by citation impact. It is hosted on the World Wide Web at the College of Information Sciences and Technology, The Pennsylvania State University, and has over 700,000 documents, primarily in the fields of computer and information science and engineering.
CiteSeer's goal was to improve the dissemination and access of academic and scientific literature. As a non-profit service that can be freely used by anyone, it has been considered as part of the open access movement that is attempting to change academic and scientific publishing to allow greater access to scientific literature.
The name can be construed to have at least two explanations. As a pun, a 'sightseer' is a tourist who looks at the sights, so a 'cite seer' would be a researcher who looks at cited papers. Another is a 'seer' is a prophet and a 'cite seer' is a prophet of citations.
CiteSeer has not been comprehensively updated since 2005 due to limitations in its architecture design. It has a representative sampling of research documents in computer and information science but is limited in coverage because it only has access to papers that are publicly available, usually at an author's homepage, or that are submitted by an author.
A new version and design of CiteSeer can be found at the Next Generation CiteSeer, CiteSeerx, website. CiteSeer-like engines and archives usually only harvest documents from publicly available websites and do not crawl publisher websites. As such authors whose documents are freely available are more likely to be represented in the index.
Compared to DBLP
A comparison of DBLP references to actual papers in CiteSeer is somewhat like comparing apples to oranges. DBLP is a manually implemented bibliography gleaned from publisher websites. Consider the references in DBLP to well known authors such as Alex Pentland (MIT) or Ramesh Jain (UCI) (DBLP listings for Alex Pentland - http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/indices/a-tree/p/Pentland:Alex.html or Ramesh Jain - http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/indices/a-tree/j/Jain:Ramesh.html). DBLP shows a regular number of publications (~9) each year in DBLP through 2007. Note that CiteSeer has only one of their publications after 2000. However, DBLP has not cached any of their actual publications but only links to them on publisher websites. In addition CiteSeer has technical reports and papers in other fields such as statistics that DBLP does not index.
Other CiteSeer Engines
The CiteSeer model had been extended to cover academic documents in business with SmealSearch and in e-business with eBizSearch. However, these were not maintained by their sponsors. A older version of both of these could be once found at BizSeer.IST but is no longer in service. For enhanced access and performance, similar versions of CiteSeer were supported at universities such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Zürich and the National University of Singapore. However, these versions of CiteSeer proved difficult to maintain and many are no longer available.
Other Seer like search and repository systems have been built for chemistry, ChemXSeer and for archaeology, ArchSeer. Another has been built for robots.txt file search, BotSeer. All of these are built on the open source tool SeerSuite which uses the open source indexer Lucene.
Next Generation CiteSeer (CiteSeerx)
The Next Generation CiteSeer project, CiteSeerx, funded by the National Science Foundation and Microsoft Research, enhances CiteSeer both as a search engine and as a digital library. As an example, CiteSeer's notion of "contribution" to acknowledgments in addition to citations would make it the first automatically generated acknowledgment index.
CiteSeerx is designed differently from CiteSeer with new algorithms for entity extraction and a modular, expandable, robust, scalable architecture based on the open source tool SeerSuite which uses Solr and many other Apache projects. As such, CiteSeerx intends to promote the creation of other Seer like systems.
The Next Generation CiteSeer, CiteSeerx, is now available in beta  with nearly 1.5 million documents indexed and is constantly growing.
- Citation index
- The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies
- DBLP (Digital Bibliography & Library Project)
- Google Scholar
- Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science
- Libra (Academic Search)
- List of academic databases and search engines
- TDG Scholar 
|This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (July 2009)|
- Official website of CiteSeerx
- Old CiteSeer website
- The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies (includes among other collections also CiteSeer and DBLP)
- CiteSeer search tool
- Digital Libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing by Steve Lawrence, C. Lee Giles and Kurt Bollacker
- Libra Academic Search, MSRAde:CiteSeer