Vector Markup Language

From Seo Wiki - Search Engine Optimization and Programming Languages

Jump to: navigation, search
Vector Markup Language
Filename extension .htm or .html
Internet media type application/vnd. openxmlformats-officedocument. vmlDrawing
Developed by Microsoft
Type of format Vector image format
Extended from XML
Standard(s) Part of ECMA-376 and ISO/IEC 29500:2008
Website ECMA-376,
ISO/IEC 29500:2008

Vector Markup Language (VML) is an open and standards-based XML language used to produce vector graphics.

VML was submitted as a proposed standard to the W3C in 1998 by Autodesk, Hewlett-Packard, Macromedia, Microsoft, and Visio.[1]

Around the same time other competing W3C submissions were received in the area of web vector graphics, such as PGML from Adobe Systems, Sun Microsystems, and others.[2] As a result of these submissions, a new W3C working group was created, which produced SVG.

While Microsoft continues to document VML,[3] development of the format ceased in 1998.[4] VML is implemented in Internet Explorer 5.0 and higher and in Microsoft Office 2000 and higher. Google Maps currently uses VML to make vector paths work when running on Internet Explorer 5.5+, and SVG on all other browsers.[5]

The Vector Markup Language is now specified in Part 4 of the Office Open XML standards ISO/IEC 29500:2008 and ECMA-376.[6][7]



VML images and their behaviours are directly defined and included in HTML code. The following code displays an oval filled in blue in Microsoft Internet Explorer:

VML oval in Internet Explorer
<html xmlns:v>
 <v:oval style="left:0;top:0;width:100;height:50" fillcolor="blue" stroked="f"/>

The Scalable Vector Graphics equivalent for this code would be:

File:Simple SVG ellipse example.svg
How this example would look in any capable viewer
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD SVG 1.1//EN"
<svg xmlns="" width="100" height="50">
  <ellipse cx="50" cy="25" rx="50" ry="25" fill="blue" stroke="none" />

One difference between the two is that VML uses CSS inside a style attribute for positions and sizes as well as presentation details such as colour and style, whereas SVG uses XML attributes for positions and sizes, and may use CSS stylesheets or XML attributes for presentation and style.[8] Three gradient types are available with VML (gradient[linear], gradientRadial, gradientTitle) while only two are possible with SVG (linearGradient, radialGradient). 3D extrusions can also be supplied on VML shapes (v:extrusion tag).

VML WebArt example[9].


VML is used by most Microsoft Office applications, such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Visio, etc. to create online files, while using the 'Save As HTML' option (plain HTML or MHT). Such files retain complete vector information, and can be reopened for editing using other Microsoft applications, such as Microsoft PowerPoint. VML is also used by Open Office which can create and read .doc files. VML is natively supported by Microsoft's Internet Explorer within inline HTML using an undefined version of SGML namespaces; SVG is natively supported by Mozilla Firefox, Opera, and Safari either separately or inline with XHTML using a W3C standard XML namespace.[10] Raphaël is an example of a JavaScript library to draw vector graphics on the web, that supports VML as well as SVG to provide cross-browser functionality.

See also


  1. Mathews, Brian; Brian Dister, John Bowler, Howard Cooperstein, Ajay Jindal, Tuan Nguyen, Peter Wu, Troy Sandal (13 May 1998). "Vector Markup Language (VML)". W3C. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  2. Al-Shamma, Nabeel; Robert Ayers, Richard Cohn, Jon Ferraiolo, Martin Newell, Roger K. de Bry, Kevin McCluskey, Jerry Evans (10 April 1998). "Precision Graphics Markup Language (PGML)". W3C. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  3. "Vector Markup Language (VML)". Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  4. Jon Frost, Stefan Goessner, Michel Hirtzler (2003). Learn SVG: the web graphics standard. p. 7. ISBN 097417730X. "Support for Microsoft's submission, VML, has been realized in Internet Explorer, but development stopped in the autumn of 1998." 
  5. "Google Maps-API-Konzepte - XHTML und VML". Google. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  6. "ISO/IEC 29500-4:2008 Information technology -- Document description and processing languages -- Office Open XML File Formats -- Part 4: Transitional Migration Features". ISO. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  7. Ecma International TC45 (2006-12). "Standard ECMA-376 Office Open XML File Formats". Ecma International. Retrieved 2007-04-04. 
  8. Watt, Andrew; Chris Lilley et al (2003). SVG Unleashed. Indiana, USA: SAMS. p. 155. ISBN 0-67232-429-6. 
  9. Vector Mona Lisa
  10. Brettz9 (25 Aug 2008). "SVG In HTML Introduction". Mozilla. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 

External links

Personal tools

Served in 1.410 secs.