To optimize the pages of a website targeted keywords and search terms should be placed in various areas of the page.
Title Tag - Include targeted search terms in the title tag without stuffing it.
Meta Description - While the meta description may not have much effect on actual rankings a good description with targeted search terms will show up as the description that is included with the link to the site in the search results.
Header Tags (H1, H2, H3...) - Use these tags to add headers and sub-headers to the web page. Make sure to include targeted search terms in the header tags.
Page Content - Write content for a person who might visit the site and don't focus on trying to get the targeted search terms in the content a certain amount of times. Write it naturally and keep the search terms in mind while writing it.
Title and Alt Attributes: These attributes are found on images and links. Include search terms in these attributes.
Anchor Text of Links - Search terms should be included in the anchor text of links. Do not stuff the links full of keywords but just include one or two main keywords in the anchor text. The keywords should be related to the page the link is pointing to and not the page the link is found on.
Offpage Optimization is the process of building up link popularity through getting inbound links. Some places to get links from are...
Web Directories - Submit to both paid and free directories.
Reciprocal Links - Find websites that offer content that is related then ask to exchange links with that site.
Articles - Write articles about products or services offered on the website and submit the articles to various article publishing sites on the web. Be sure to include a link to the product or service on your site.
Press Releases (PR) - Similar to writing articles. Press releases can be submitted to places like PRweb and PRleap. They then can be picked up by other news sites including Google news and Yahoo.