Server-side JavaScript

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Server-side JavaScript (SSJS) refers to JavaScript that runs on the server-side. This term was coined because the language is predominantly used on the client-side, i.e. client-side JavaScript (CSJS).

The first implementation of SSJS was Netscape's LiveWire, included in their Enterprise Server 2.0 product, released in 1996.

Examples of current uses of JavaScript on the server side
Project/product name JavaScript Engine Server Platform(s) Comments Website
Xpages IBM JS Lotus Domino Server Compiles Javascript to Java, which then runs in Domino context [1]
10gen 10gen 10gen application server Uses the Rhino parser. Compiles Javascript to Java. [2]
Acre Rhino Jetty HTTP Server Integrated with Freebase to power Freebaseapps.com, a collaborative hosting environment.
Apache Sling Rhino Any Java servlet container and standalone. Sling is a generic Java web application framework that allows to use any script language via the standard Java Script Engine interface. Sling is RESTful by design and sits on top of a Java Content Repository, giving scripts full access to the JCR. [3]
APE SpiderMonkey Standalone HTTP Used to write custom server modules (manage message queue, users, channels, sockets, http, ...). [4] [5]
AppJet Rhino(modified) Also provides hosting in a virtual machine
Aptana Jaxer Mozilla + SpiderMonkey Apache HTTP Server An actively developed, community open source ajax-server based on the Mozilla browser (DOM + JavaScript engine) . HTML, JavaScript, and CSS are native to Jaxer, as are XMLHttpRequests, JSON, DOM scripting, etc. It offers access to databases, files, and networking, as well as logging, process management, scalability, security, integration APIs, and extensibility. [6]
ASP JScript IIS
Axiom Stack Rhino Jetty HTTP Server Actively developed open source SSJS server. JSON, E4X, List Comprehensions. Complete access to Java APIs. Built-in security. Lucene data store by default with JDBC access to relational databases. [7]
Cocoon Flowscript Rhino Apache Cocoon [8]
CouchDB SpiderMonkey Standalone HTTP Used in MapReduce and update validation functions as well as to transform JSON documents and view results into HTML or other content-types.
DovetailDb Rhino Jetty HTTP Server DovetailDB is a schemaless, JSON-based database with an Apache license. You can use the hosted database or install your own. You can override the handlers to supplement with access control, use map/reduce, install JavaScript stored procedures to call from the client, and more. [9]
Eclipse e4 Rhino Equinox OSGi, bundled with Jetty, any servlet container (using the servlet bridge) Extensions can be written in JS, not just Java, especially servlets using the OSGi HTTP Service. Frontends can be developed with Eclipse RAP using the SWT and JFace APIs, or any other UI framework. Focus is on modularity (plug-ins), extensibility, scalability. [10]
ESXX Rhino FastCGI, stand-alone HTTP, any Java servlet container, Google App Engine Focus is on ease of use, web security and XML/XSLT (via Saxon). Has SQL, LDAP, HTTP/REST, SOAP and Java support. Can also execute JS scripts from the command line. [11]
Ejscript Ejscript Appweb HTTP Server, Apache HTTP Server Enhanced ECMA-262 Language and (Ruby on Rails like) web framework including Model/View/Controller paradigm, SQLite database connectivity, Ajax libraries and a suite of view controls. Includes command line generators and tools. [12]
EditMe Rhino Hosted (Tomcat) Wiki with embedded JavaScript engine and API for application development within the wiki [13]
GLUEscript SpiderMonkey Apache HTTP Server, FastCGI and Stand-alone Glueing Libraries Using Ecmascript (GLUE) ports sqlite, mysql, memcached, wxWidgets, ... to JavaScript. GLUEscript is the successor of wxJavaScript [14]
GromJS SpiderMonkey Bauk, FastCGI and Stand-alone using gromjscli GromJS Server-Side JavaScript interpreter includes support for files (open, read, write, lock, seek, truncate, etc.), MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQLite databases, session variables, hash arrays, pipes, HTTP file-upload, cookies and more. [15]
Helma Rhino Jetty HTTP Server Complete package with web server and framework. [16]
Jack Multiple Multiple A JavaScript engine and server-agnostic interface, much like Rack for Ruby and WSGI for Python. [17]
jsext SpiderMonkey Apache HTTP Server, lighttpd and Stand-alone Has modules for fastCGI, CGI, MySQL, SQLite, FTP, SMTP, HTTP, AJAX, JSON, SOAP, WSDL and more. Automatic inclusion of C libraries. [18]
jslibs SpiderMonkey FastCGI and Stand-alone (TCP) Native libraries bindings: NSPR, SQLite, FastCGI, libTomCrypt, librsvg, libpng, libjpeg, FreeType, libffi, ... [19]
JSSP Rhino Any Java servlet container. Contains a modified Rhino version for embedded SQL support [20]
im-jssp Rhino Resin and any other Java servlet container. "im-jssp" is a template engine that used Server Side JavaScript and HTML.
And "im-jssp" has custom tag "jsspRpc" that is Server Side JavaScript can be called from Client Side JavaScript seamlessly.
[21] (Japanese)
Juice SpiderMonkey Stand-alone [22]
Junction Rhino Apache HTTP Server Ruby on Rails port to javascript [23]
Livelink WCM Presentation Server SpiderMonkey Apache HTTP Server, IIS and Sun Java System Web Server A commercial content management system used in a number of European public-sector and financial organizations. It uses SSJS for dynamic features and to customize the behavior of built-in objects. Though still developed and supported for existing users, this SSJS product is no longer available for sale to new customers.[1]
mod js SpiderMonkey Apache HTTP Server mod_js is a stand-alone module for Apache that is able to execute JavaScript on the server. Now discontinued. [24]
Myna Javascript Application Server Rhino Any Java servlet container, packaged with winstone Myna is a general purpose, 100% open source, web platform modeled after Cold Fusion with centralized datasources, Web-based Administration, runtime Object Relational Mapping, templating, LDAP access, strong cryptography, SOAP and XML-RPC publishing and more. [25]
Narwhal Rhino, JavaScriptCore, XULRunner, V8, others Multiple An implementation of the CommonJS standard for multiple JavaScript interpreters. [26]
Node.js V8 Standalone Javascript asynchronous, Event-based I/O. Influenced by systems like Ruby's Event Machine or Python's Twisted. Few modules available (yet). [27]
NOTEX SpiderMonkey CGI/FastCGI script on any web server NOTEX is a CGI script to run JavaScript files hosted anywhere on the network to process XML data with E4X [28]
OpenMocha Helma Stand-alone [29]
Opera (web browser) Futhark Opera Unite Javascript is the server-side language used to develop services for the Opera Unite feature of the Opera browser. This is a server built in to the browser. The javascript API includes local file access to a virtual sandboxed file-system and persistent storage via persistent global variables. [30]
Persevere Rhino Jetty HTTP Server JSON database integrated with JavaScript environment with a HTTP/REST, JSON-RPC, and Comet interfaces. [31]
PyV8 V8 Standalone Python Wrapper for Google V8 Javascript Engine which could be used in the web framework or script [32]
Phobos Rhino Glassfish and any other Java servlet container.
POW SpiderMonkey Mozilla Firefox A Mozilla Firefox Extension which adds a server to your browser. Templates can use SSJS. [33]
Rhino in Spring Rhino Spring [34]
Rhinola Rhino Apache HTTP Server Uses gcj [35]
Server Side Execution (SSX) Rhino Devwex JSP/ASP-like scripting; supports threads, object (de)serialization, access to local and remote filesystems, database connection via jdbc; released under the GPL2 license [36]
Server Side Javascript Rhino Jetty 6 For writing servlets. [37]
Torino Rhino Tomcat and any other Java servlet container. Server-side JavaScript environment for developing web applications. Provides a rich server-side programming environment using Java APIs. Released under the GPL3 license. [38]
Whitebeam SpiderMonkey Apache HTTP Server Server-side JavaScript environment for developing web applications. Includes integration with graphics libraries and the PostgreSQL database. Actively developed and in use supporting commercial sites. Released under the BSD license. Latest release supports E4X. [39]
wxJavaScript SpiderMonkey Apache HTTP Server and Stand-alone With E4X and wxWidgets ported classes. GLUEscript is the successor of wxJavaScript [40]
v8cgi V8 Apache, cgi, fcgi and Stand-alone Libraries for GD, HTTP, MySQL, Sessions, Sockets and templating. [41]
Google Apps Script Automate simple tasks across Google Products [42]
SSJS SpiderMonkey Synchronet BBS Integrated Http Server Current developer trunk (3.15a) supports E4X [43]
Wakanda SquirrelFish Extreme Wakanda Server native JavaScript/REST structured storage database, XML/JSON representations, JSON-RPC, SSL, CommonJS interface, File service (Mozilla Bespin compatible), debugging protocol, client-side interface (WAF), YUI, ExtJS, & JQuery adapters... [44]

Other common server-side programming languages are JSP, ASP, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby and ColdFusion amongst others.

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Notes and references


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