From Seo Wiki - Search Engine Optimization and Programming Languages

Jump to: navigation, search

Template:Infobox OS

Linux (commonly pronounced /ˈlɪnʌks/, LI-nuks in English,[1][2] also pronounced /ˈlɪnʊks/, LI-nooks[3]) is a generic term referring to Unix-like computer operating systems based on the Linux kernel. Their development is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and redistributed, both commercially and non-commercially, by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License.

Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from embedded devices such as mobile phones and wristwatches[4] to mainframes and supercomputers.[5][6] Linux is predominantly known for its use in servers; in 2007 Linux's overall share of the server market was estimated at 12.7%, while a 2008 estimate suggested that 60% of all web servers ran Linux. Most desktop computers run either Mac OS X or Microsoft Windows, with Linux having only 1–2% of the desktop market. However, desktop use of Linux has become increasingly popular in recent years, partly owing to the popular Ubuntu distribution[7] and the emergence of netbooks.[8]

Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel and all of the supporting software required to run a complete system, such as utilities and libraries, the X Window System, the GNOME and KDE desktop environments, and the Apache HTTP Server. Commonly-used applications with desktop Linux systems include the Mozilla Firefox web-browser and the office application suite.

The name "Linux" comes from the Linux kernel, originally written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The contribution of a supporting Userland in the form of system tools and libraries from the GNU Project (announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman) is the basis for the Free Software Foundation's preferred name GNU/Linux.[9][10]



Template:Double image


The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna. It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly language, a common practice at the time. Later, in a key pioneering approach in 1973, Unix was re-written in the programming language C by Dennis Ritchie, (with exceptions to the kernel and I/O). The availability of an operating system written in a high-level language allowed easier portability to different computer platforms and Unix became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses.


The GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software. Work began in 1984.[11] Later, in 1985, Stallman created the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989. By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system (such as libraries, compilers, text editors, a Unix shell, and a windowing system) were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers, daemons, and the kernel were stalled and incomplete.[12] Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991), he would not have decided to write his own.[13]


MINIX was an inexpensive minimal Unix-like operating system, designed for education in computer science, written by Andrew S. Tanenbaum. As of version 3, MINIX is free and redesigned also for “serious” use.

In 1991 while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds began to work on a non-commercial replacement for MINIX,[14] which would eventually become the Linux kernel.

Torvalds began the development of Linux on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were also used under Linux. Later Linux matured and it became possible for Linux to be developed under itself.[15] Also GNU applications replaced all MINIX ones because, with code from the GNU system freely available, it was advantageous if this could be used with the fledgling OS. Code licensed under the GNU GPL can be used in other projects, so long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license. In order to make the Linux kernel compatible with the components from the GNU Project, Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license (which prohibited commercial redistribution) to the GNU GPL.[16] Developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to make a fully functional and free operating system.[12]

Commercial and popular uptake

Today Linux distributions are used in numerous domains, from embedded systems to supercomputers,[17][18] and have secured a place in server installations with the popular LAMP application stack.[19] Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been expanding.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26] They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux.[27][28] News of the Russian military creating their own Linux distribution has also surfaced, and has come to fruition as the G.H.ost Project.[29] Indian state of Kerala has gone so far as to make it mandatory for all state high schools to run Linux on their computers.[30][31] China uses Linux exclusively as the operating system for its Loongson processor family to achieve technology independence.[32] In Spain some regions have developed their own Linux distributions, which are widely used in education and official institutions, like gnuLinEx in Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia. France and Germany have also taken steps towards the adoption of Linux.[33]

Linux distributions have also become popular with the newly founded netbook market, with many devices such as the ASUS Eee PC and Acer Aspire One shipping with customized Linux distributions installed.[citation needed]

Current development

Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation, which in turn supports the GNU components. Finally, individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions.


A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system access. Device drivers are integrated directly with the kernel.

Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system's higher-level functionality. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux-based systems, providing the most common implementation of the C library, a popular shell, and many of the common Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks. The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by most Linux systems is based on the X Window System.

User interface

Users can control a Linux-based system through a command line interface (or CLI), a graphical user interface (or GUI), or through controls attached to the associated hardware (this is common for embedded systems). For desktop systems, the default mode is usually graphical user interface, where the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console.

On desktop machines, KDE, GNOME and Xfce are the most popular user interfaces,[34] though a variety of additional user interfaces exist. Most popular user interfaces run on top of the X Window System (often simply called "X"), which provides network transparency, enabling a graphical application running on one machine to be displayed and controlled from another.[citation needed]

Other GUIs include X window managers such as FVWM, Enlightenment and Window Maker. The window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows, and interacts with the X Window System. This is a more minimalist goal than KDE, GNOME et al., which are termed desktop environments.

A Linux system typically provides a CLI through a shell, which is the traditional way of interacting with a Unix system. A Linux distribution specialized for servers may use the CLI as its only interface. A headless system that runs without even a monitor can be controlled by the command line via a remote-control protocol such as SSH or telnet.

Most low-level Linux components, including the GNU userland, use the CLI exclusively. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks, and provides very simple inter-process communication. A graphical terminal emulator program is often used to access the CLI from a Linux desktop.


File:Unix history.svg
A summarized history of Unix-like operating systems showing Linux's origins. Note that despite similar architectural designs and concepts being shared as part of the POSIX standard, Linux does not share any non-free source code with the original Unix or MINIX.

The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software. Linux is not the only such operating system, although it is by far the most widely used.[35] Some free and open source software licenses are based on the principle of copyleft, a kind of reciprocity: any work derived from a copyleft piece of software must also be copyleft itself. The most common free software license, the GNU GPL, is a form of copyleft, and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU project.

Linux based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards. Linux systems adhere to POSIX,[36] SUS,[37] ISO and ANSI standards where possible, although to date only one Linux distribution has been POSIX.1 certified, Linux-FT.[38]

Free software projects, although developed in a collaborative fashion, are often produced independently of each other. The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution, however, provides a basis for larger scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution.

A Linux distribution, commonly called a "distro", is a project that manages a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection. This allows the user to adapt the operating system to his/her specific needs. Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit teams, volunteer organizations, and commercial entities. A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel, general system security, and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole. Distributions typically use a package manager such as Synaptic or YAST to install, remove and update all of a system's software from one central location.


A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities. Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis, Debian being a well-known example. Others maintain a community version of their commercial distributions, as Red Hat does with Fedora.

In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux Users Groups (LUGs) seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software. They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installation to new users. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers. Most distributions and free software / open source projects have IRC chatrooms or newsgroups. Online forums are another means for support, with notable examples being and the Gentoo forums. Linux distributions host mailing lists; commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list.

There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. Print magazines on Linux often include cover disks including software or even complete Linux distributions.[39][40]

Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge, several large corporations sell, support, and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software. Analysis of Linux code—from December 2008 to January 2010—showed 75 percent of the code was developed by programmers working for corporations, leaving about 18 percent to the traditional, open source community.[41] Some of the major corporations that contribute include Dell, IBM, HP, Oracle, Sun Microsystems, Novell, Nokia. A number of corporations, notably Red Hat, have built their entire business around Linux distributions.

The free software licenses, on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic. One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support, especially for business users. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks. Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell hardware.

Programming on Linux

Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. The most common collection of utilities for building both Linux applications and operating system programs is found within the GNU toolchain, which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system. Amongst others, GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Java, and Fortran. The Linux kernel itself is written to be compiled with GCC. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler, Sun Studio, and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. BASIC is supported in such forms as Gambas, FreeBASIC, and XBasic.

Most distributions also include support for PHP, Perl, Ruby, Python and other dynamic languages. While not as common, Linux also supports C# via the Mono project, sponsored by Novell, and Scheme. A number of Java Virtual Machines and development kits run on Linux, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe.

The two main frameworks for developing graphical applications are those of GNOME and KDE. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qt widget toolkits, respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework. Both support a wide variety of languages. There are a number of Integrated development environments available including Anjuta, Code::Blocks, Eclipse, KDevelop, Lazarus, MonoDevelop, NetBeans, QtCreator and Omnis Studio while the long-established editors Vim and Emacs remain popular.[42]


As well as those designed for general purpose use on desktops and servers, distributions may be specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support, embedded systems, stability, security, localization to a specific region or language, targeting of specific user groups, support for real-time applications, or commitment to a given desktop environment. Furthermore, some distributions deliberately include only free software. Currently, over three hundred distributions are actively developed, with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use.[43]

Linux is a widely ported operating system kernel. The Linux kernel runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures: in the hand-held ARM-based iPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9, System z10 in devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers.[44] Specialized distributions exist for less mainstream architectures. The ELKS kernel fork can run on Intel 8086 or Intel 80286 16-bit microprocessors, while the µClinux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit. The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system, such as Macintosh computers (with both PowerPC and Intel processors), PDAs, video game consoles, portable music players, and mobile phones.

There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux, such as FreedomHEC.


The popularity of Linux on standard desktops (and laptops) has been increasing over the years.[45] Currently most distributions include a graphical user environment. The two most popular such environments are GNOME and KDE, both of which are mature and support a wide variety of languages.

The performance of Linux on the desktop has been a controversial topic; for example in 2007 Con Kolivas accused the Linux community of favoring performance on servers. He quit Linux kernel development because he was frustrated with this lack of focus on the desktop, and then gave a "tell all" interview on the topic.[46] Since then a significant effort has been expended improving the desktop experience. Projects such as upstart aim for a faster boot time.[47] In the field of gaming, the Linux desktop still lags behind Windows.[48] However, there are several companies that do port their own or other companies' games to Linux.

Many types of applications available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X are also available for Linux. Commonly, either a free software application will exist which does the functions of an application found on another operating systems, or that application will have a version that works on Linux (such as Skype). Furthermore, the Wine project provides a Windows compatibility layer to run unmodified Windows applications on Linux. CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the open source Wine project that supports running Windows versions of Microsoft Office, Intuit applications such as Quicken and QuickBooks, Adobe Photoshop versions through CS2, and many popular games such as World of Warcraft and Team Fortress 2. In other cases, where there is no Linux port of some software in areas such as desktop publishing[49] and professional audio,[50][51][52] there is equivalent software available on Linux.

Many popular applications are available for a wide variety of operating systems. For example Mozilla Firefox, and have downloadable versions for all major operating systems. Furthermore, some applications were initially developed for Linux (such as Pidgin, and GIMP) and, due to their popularity, were ported to other operating systems (including Windows and Mac OS X).

A growing number of proprietary desktop applications are also supported on Linux,[53] see List of proprietary software for Linux. In the field of animation and visual effects, most high end software, such as AutoDesk Maya, Softimage XSI and Apple Shake, is available for Linux, Windows and/or Mac OS X.

The collaborative nature of free software development allows distributed teams to localize Linux distributions for use in locales where localizing proprietary systems would not be cost-effective. For example the Sinhalese language version of the Knoppix distribution was available significantly before Microsoft Windows XP was translated to Sinhalese.[citation needed] In this case the Lanka Linux User Group played a major part in developing the localized system by combining the knowledge of university professors, linguists, and local developers.

To install new software in Windows, users either download a digital distribution and double-click to install it or use a traditional installation medium (such as CD-ROM). Both of these methods usually provide a "Software Installation Wizard" to guide the user through the setup. On most Linux distributions, there are utilities for browsing a list of thousands of applications installed with a single click. Some of these programs are the Synaptic Package Manager, PackageKit, and Yum Extender. However, installing software not in the official repositories is not always easy - especially for users new to Linux - and sometimes the only option is to compile from source.

Servers, mainframes and supercomputers

File:Server Linux.jpg
Servers designed for Linux

Linux distributions have long been used as server operating systems, and have risen to prominence in that area; Netcraft reported in September 2006 that eight of the ten most reliable internet hosting companies ran Linux distributions on their web servers.[54] (As of June 2008, Linux distributions represented five of ten, FreeBSD three of ten, and Microsoft two of ten.[55])

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Jaguar supercomputer, as of November 2009 the world's fastest supercomputer. It uses the Cray Linux Environment as its operating system.[56][57]

Linux distributions are the cornerstone of the LAMP server-software combination (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python) which has achieved popularity among developers, and which is one of the more common platforms for website hosting.[citation needed]

Linux distributions have become increasingly popular on mainframes in the last decade due to pricing, compared to other mainframe operating systems. In December 2009, computer giant IBM reported that it would predominantly market and sell mainframe-based Enterprise Linux Server.[58]

Linux distributions are also commonly used as operating systems for supercomputers: as of November 2009, out of the top 500 systems, 446 (89.2%) run a Linux distribution.[59]

Linux was also selected as the operating system for the world's most powerful supercomputer, IBM's Sequoia which will become operational in 2011.[60]

Embedded devices

Due to its low cost and ability to be easily modified, an embedded Linux is often used in embedded systems. Linux has become a major competitor to the proprietary Symbian OS found in the majority of smartphones—16.7% of smartphones sold worldwide during 2006 were using Linux[61]—and it is an alternative to the proprietary Windows CE and Palm OS operating systems on mobile devices. Cell phones or PDAs running on Linux and built on open source platform became a trend from 2007, like Nokia N810, Openmoko's Neo1973, Motorola RAZR2 v8, Motorola ROKR E8, Motorola MING series, Motorola ZINE and Google Android. The popular TiVo digital video recorder uses a customized version of Linux.[62] Several network firewall and router standalone products, including several from Cisco/Linksys, use Linux internally, using its advanced firewall and routing capabilities. The Korg OASYS and the Yamaha Motif XS music workstations also run Linux.[63] Furthermore, Linux is used in the leading stage lighting control system, FlyingPig/HighEnd WholeHogIII Console.[64]

Market share and uptake

Many quantitative studies of free / open source software focus on topics including market share and reliability, with numerous studies specifically examining Linux.[65] The Linux market is growing rapidly, and the revenue of servers, desktops, and packaged software running Linux was expected to exceed $35.7 billion by 2008.[66]

IDC's Q1 2007 report indicated that Linux held 12.7% of the overall server market at that time.[67] This estimate was based on the number of Linux servers sold by various companies and did not include server hardware purchased separately and had Linux installed on it later. In September 2008 Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer admitted that 60% of web-servers run Linux versus 40% that run Windows Server.[68]

Companies have, mostly based on web server statistics, estimated that the desktop market share of Linux range from less than 1% to 2.14%. In comparison, Microsoft operating systems hold more than 85%.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][69][70]

The frictional cost of switching operating systems and lack of support for certain hardware and application programs designed for Microsoft Windows have been two factors that have inhibited adoption. Proponents and analysts attribute the relative success of Linux to its security, reliability,[71] low cost, and freedom from vendor lock-in.[72]

Also most recently Google has begun to fund Wine, which acts as a compatibility layer, allowing users to run some Windows programs under Linux.[73][74]

The XO laptop project of One Laptop Per Child is creating a new and potentially much larger Linux community, planned to reach millions of schoolchildren and their families and communities in developing countries.[75] Google, Red Hat, and eBay are major supporters of the project.[76] While the XO will also have a Windows option, it will be primarily deployed using Sugar, a desktop environment for Fedora Linux.

In the film industry, Linux has been the platform of choice for several years. The first major film produced on Linux servers was Titanic in 1997. Since then major studios like Dreamworks Animation, Pixar and Industrial Light & Magic have moved to Linux.[77][78] According to the Linux Movies Group, more than 95% of the servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux.[79]

Copyright and naming

The Linux kernel and most GNU software are licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL requires that anyone who distributes the Linux kernel must make the source code (and any modifications) available to the recipient under the same terms. In 1997, Linus Torvalds stated, “Making Linux GPL'd was definitely the best thing I ever did.”[80] Other key components of a Linux system may use other licenses; many libraries use the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a more permissive variant of the GPL, and the X Window System uses the MIT License.

Torvalds states that the Linux kernel will not move from version 2 of the GPL to version 3. He specifically dislikes some provisions in the new license which prohibit the use of the software in digital rights management,[81][82] and it would also be impractical to obtain permission from all the copyright holders, who number in the thousands.[83]

A 2001 study of Red Hat Linux 7.1 found that this distribution contained 30 million source lines of code.[84] Using the Constructive Cost Model, the study estimated that this distribution required about eight thousand man-years of development time. According to the study, if all this software had been developed by conventional proprietary means, it would have cost about $Template:Formatprice (Template:CURRENTISOYEAR US dollars) to develop in the United States.[84]

Most of the code (71%) was written in the C programming language, but many other languages were used, including C++, assembly language, Perl, Python, Fortran, and various shell scripting languages. Slightly over half of all lines of code were licensed under the GPL. The Linux kernel itself was 2.4 million lines of code, or 8% of the total.[84]

In a later study, the same analysis was performed for Debian GNU/Linux version 4.0 (etch, released 2007).[85] This distribution contained close to 283 million source lines of code, and the study estimated that it would have cost $Template:Formatprice (Template:CURRENTISOYEAR US dollars) to develop by conventional means.

In the United States, the name Linux is a trademark registered to Linus Torvalds.[86] Initially, nobody registered it, but on 15 August 1994, William R. Della Croce, Jr. filed for the trademark Linux, and then demanded royalties from Linux distributors. In 1996, Torvalds and some affected organizations sued him to have the trademark assigned to Torvalds, and in 1997 the case was settled.[87] The licensing of the trademark has since been handled by the Linux Mark Institute. Torvalds has stated that he trademarked the name only to prevent someone else from using it. LMI originally charged a nominal sublicensing fee for use of the Linux name as part of trademarks,[88] but later changed this in favor of offering a free, perpetual worldwide sublicense.[89]


The Free Software Foundation views Linux distributions which use GNU software as GNU variants and they ask that such operating systems be referred to as GNU/Linux or a Linux-based GNU system.[90] The media and common usage, however, refers to this family of operating systems simply as Linux, as do many large Linux distributions (e.g. Ubuntu[91] and SuSE Linux). Some distributions use GNU/Linux (particularly notable is Debian GNU/Linux, on which Ubuntu is based), but the term's use outside of the enthusiast community is limited. The naming issue remains controversial.

See also


  1. Safalra (2007-04-14). "Pronunciation of ‘Linux’". Safalra’s Website. Retrieved 2009-09-15. 
  2. Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing (June 2006). "Linux". Retrieved 2009-09-15. 
  3. Torvalds used /ˈlɪnʊks/ in English.
    (23 April 1992). "Re: How to pronounce "Linux"?". (Google Groups). Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
    Torvalds has made available an audio sample with his pronunciation in English (/ˈlɪnʊks/: "How to pronounce Linux?". Retrieved 2006-12-17. ) and in Swedish (/ˈlɪːnɤks/: "Linus pronouncing Linux in English and Swedish". Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  4. IBM (October 2001). "Linux Watch". Retrieved 2009-09-29. 
  5. Computerworld, Patrick Thibodeau. "IBM's newest mainframe is all Linux". Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  6. Lyons, Daniel. "Linux rules supercomputers". Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  7. The Economist (December 2007). "Technology in 2008". Retrieved 2008-04-01 (publicly available Dec 2007 – May 2009, rendered members only in May 2009, quoted at National Capital FreeNet. 
  8. The Economist (December 2008). "Small is beautiful". Retrieved 2008-12-21. 
  9. Weeks, Alex (2004). "1.1". Linux System Administrator's Guide (version 0.9 ed.). Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  10. "The GNU Operating System". Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  11. "About the GNU Project – Initial Announcement". 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Overview of the GNU System". Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  13. "Linus vs. Tanenbaum debate". 
  14. "What would you like to see most in minix?". comp.os.minix. (Web link). Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
  15. "Chicken and egg: How was the first linux gcc binary created??". 
  16. Torvalds, Linus (1992-01-05). "Release notes for Linux v0.12". Linux Kernel Archives. Retrieved 2007-07-23. "The Linux copyright will change: I've had a couple of requests to make it compatible with the GNU copyleft, removing the “you may not distribute it for money” condition. I agree. I propose that the copyright be changed so that it confirms to GNU ─ pending approval of the persons who have helped write code. I assume this is going to be no problem for anybody: If you have grievances ("I wrote that code assuming the copyright would stay the same") mail me. Otherwise The GNU copyleft takes effect as of the first of February. If you do not know the gist of the GNU copyright ─ read it." 
  17. Santhanam, Anand; Vishal Kulkarni (1 March 2002). "Linux system development on an embedded device". DeveloperWorks. IBM. Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  18. Lyons, Daniel. "Linux rules supercomputers". Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  19. Schrecker, Michael. "Turn on Web Interactivity with LAMP". Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Galli, Peter (2007-08-08). "Vista Aiding Linux Desktop, Strategist Says". eWEEK (Ziff Davis Enterprise Inc.). Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Paul, Ryan (2007-09-03). "Linux market share set to surpass Win 98, OS X still ahead of Vista". Ars Technica (Ars Technica, LLC). Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Beer, Stan (2007-01-23). "Vista to play second fiddle to XP until 2009: Gartner". iTWire (iTWire). Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 "Operating System Marketshare for Year 2007". Market Share. Net Applications. 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 "Vista slowly continues its growth; Linux more aggressive than Mac OS during the summer". XiTiMonitor (AT Internet/ 2007-09-24. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Global Web Stats". W3Counter. Awio Web Services LLC. 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 "June 2004 Zeitgeist". Google Press Center. Google Inc.. 2004-08-12. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  27. "Brazil's love of Linux". Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  28. "Brazil falls in love with Linux". BBC News. 2004-02-01. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  29. "LV: Minister: "Open standards improve efficiency and transparency"". Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  30. "Linux Spreads its Wings in India". Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  31. "Kerala shuts windows, schools to use only Linux". Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  32. "China’s Microprocessor Dilemma". Microprocessor Report. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  33. "Some countries are choosing Linux systems over Microsoft". Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  34. "Debian popularity-contest program information". 
  35. Operating System Market Share (November 2009). "Operating System Market Share". Retrieved 2009-12-11. 
  36. "POSIX.1 (FIPS 151-2) Certification". 
  37. "How source code compatible is Debian with other Unix systems?". Debian FAQ. the Debian project. 
  38. "Certifying Linux". 
  39. Linux Format. "Linux Format DVD contents". Retrieved 2008-01-17. 
  40. "Current Issue". Retrieved 2008-01-17. 
  41. APC. "75% of Linux code now written by paid developers". Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  42. Brockmeier, Joe. "A survey of Linux Web development tools". Retrieved 2006-12-16. 
  43. "The Linux Distribution List". Retrieved 2006-05-19. 
  44. Advani, Prakash (8 February 2004). "If I could re-write Linux". Retrieved 2007-01-23. 
  45. What is Linux
  46. "Linux: why I quit". APC Magazine. ACP Magazines. 2007-07-24. Retrieved 2008-01-18. 
  47. "Performance of Java on Ubuntu vs Windows". 
  48. Michael Larabel (9 November 2007). "A Synopsis Of Linux Graphics Drivers". Retrieved 31 March 2009. 
  49. Advani, Prakash (2000-10-27). "Microsoft Office for Linux?". FreeOS. FreeOS Technologies (I) Pvt. Ltd.. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  50. Smith-Heisters, Ian (2005-10-11). "Editing audio in Linux". Ars Technica. Ars Technica, LLC. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  51. Lumma, Carl (April 2007). "Linux: It's Not Just For Computer Geeks Anymore". Keyboard Magazine. New Bay Media, LLC.. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  52. James, Daniel (February 2004). "Using Linux For Recording & Mastering". Sound On Sound. SOS Publications Group. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  53. "The Global Desktop Project, Building Technology and Communities". Retrieved 2006-05-07. 
  54. "Rackspace Most Reliable Hoster in September". Netcraft. 7 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-01. 
  55. "Aplus.Net is the Most Reliable Hosting Company Site in June 2008". Netcraft. 7 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  56. TOP500.Org (2009). "Jaguar". Retrieved 2009-11-18. 
  57. National Center for Computational Sciences (October 2009). "Jaguar". Retrieved 2009-11-18. 
  58. Timothy Prickett Morgan. "IBM punts Linux-only mainframes Big MIPS, deep discounts". The Register. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  59. "Operating system Family share for 11/2009 | TOP500 Supercomputing Sites". Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  60. "20 Petaflop Sequoia Supercomputer". 
  61. "The Palm OS Clings To Life". 
  62. "TiVo ─ GNU/Linux Source Code". Archived from the original on 2007-05-19. Retrieved 2006-12-12. 
  63. "Case Study: How MontaVista Linux helped Yamaha developers make a great product greater". Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  64. "Embedded Linux: FlyingPigs the WholeHogIII runs on Linux". 
  65. Wheeler, David A. "Why Open Source Software/Free Software (OSS/FS)? Look at the Numbers!". Retrieved 2006-04-01. 
  66. "Linux To Ring Up $35 Billion By 2008". Retrieved 2006-04-01. 
  67. "─ IDC Q1 2007 report". 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  68. Niccolai, James (September 2008). "Ballmer Still Searching for an Answer to Google". Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  69. Byfield, Bruce (May 2009). "Linux Desktop Market Share: Greater Than One Percent?". Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  70. Awio Web Services (August 2009). "W3Counter – Global Webstats". Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  71. "Why customers are flocking to Linux". 
  72. "The rise and rise of Linux". 
  73. Kegel, Dan (2008-02-14). "Google's support for Wine in 2007". wine-devel mailing list. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  74. "Open Source Patches: Wine". Google. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  75. "mission". Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  76. One Laptop per Child (OLPC), a low-cost, connected laptop for the world's children's education
  77. "Industry of Change: Linux Storms Hollywood". Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  78. "Tux with Shades, Linux in Hollywood". Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  79. " – Advancing Linux Motion Picture Technology". Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  80. "Linus Torvalds interview". Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  81. Torvalds, Linus (2006-01-26). "Re: GPL V3 and Linux ─ Dead Copyright Holders". Linux Kernel Mailing List. 
  82. Torvalds, Linus (2006-09-25). "Re: GPLv3 Position Statement". Linux Kernel Mailing List. 
  83. – Keeping an Eye on the Penguin
  84. 84.0 84.1 84.2 Wheeler, David A (2002-07-29). "More Than a Gigabuck: Estimating GNU/Linux's Size". Retrieved 2006-05-11. 
  85. Amor, Juan José; et al. (17 June 2007). "Measuring Etch: the size of Debian 4.0". Retrieved 2007-09-16. 
  86. "U.S. Reg No: 1916230". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 2006-04-01. 
  87. "Linux Timeline". Linux Journal. 31 May 2006. 
  88. Neil McAllister (2005-09-05). "Linus gets tough on Linux trademark". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  89. "Linux Mark Institute". Retrieved 2008-02-24. "LMI has restructured its sublicensing program. Our new sublicense agreement is: Free — approved sublicense holders pay no fees; Perpetual — sublicense terminates only in breach of the agreement or when your organization ceases to use its mark; Worldwide — one sublicense covers your use of the mark anywhere in the world" 
  90. Stallman, Richard (2007-03-03). "Linux and the GNU Project". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 2007-03-12. 
  91. Canonical Ltd. (2009). "About Ubuntu". Retrieved 2009-03-22. 

Further reading


External links

External links for readers new to Linux

Template:Linux Template:Unix-like

Template:Operating system

ace:Linux af:Linux als:Linux am:ሊኑክስ ar:جنو/لينكس an:Linux ast:Linux az:Linuks bn:লিনাক্স zh-min-nan:Linux be:Linux be-x-old:GNU/Linux bar:Linux bs:Linux br:Linux bg:Линукс ca:GNU/Linux ceb:Linux cs:Linux co:Linux cy:Linux da:Linux de:Linux et:Linux el:Linux es:GNU/Linux eo:Linukso eu:Linux fa:لینوکس fr:Linux ga:Linux gl:Linux ko:리눅스 hy:Linux hi:लिनक्स hsb:Linux hr:Linux io:Linux ilo:GNU/Linux id:Linux ia:Linux zu:Linux is:Linux it:Linux he:לינוקס jv:Linux kn:ಲಿನಕ್ಸ್ ka:ლინუქსი csb:Linux kk:Linux ht:Linux ku:Linux lo:ລິນຸກຊ໌ la:Linux lv:Linux lb:Linux lt:Linux li:Linux jbo:linuks lmo:Linux hu:Linux mk:Линукс mg:Linux ml:ഗ്നു/ലിനക്സ് mr:लिनक्स arz:لينكس ms:Linux mn:Линукс nl:Linux ne:लिनक्स new:लाइनक्स ja:Linux no:GNU/Linux nn:Linux oc:Linux uz:GNU/Linux nds:Linux pl:Linux pt:Linux kaa:Linux ksh:Linux (Bedriefsystem) ro:Linux qu:Linux ru:Linux sah:Linux sc:Linux stq:Linux sq:Linux scn:Linux simple:Linux sk:Linux sl:Linux szl:Linux so:Linux ckb:گنو/لینوکس sr:Линукс sh:Linux fi:Linux sv:Linux tl:Linux ta:க்னூ/லினக்சு tt:Linux te:లినక్సు th:ลินุกซ์ tr:Linux udm:Linux uk:Лінукс ur:لینکس vec:Linux vi:Linux fiu-vro:Linux wa:Linux war:Linux wo:Linux yi:לינוקס zh-yue:Linux zea:Linux bat-smg:Linux zh:Linux

Personal tools

Served in 10.387 secs.